Mechanism of action
The drug works by killing bacteria after interfering with the enzymes which make the DNA to rewind. After the DNA is copied, the drug stops its synthesis and the synthesis of protein. Ciprofloxacin was invented in 1983 by Bayer A.G. and was approved in 1987 for general use.
Ciprofloxacin is key antibiotic for curing a large number of infections, diseases and other symptoms. Some of them are endocarditis, bone infections, malignans otitis, cellulitis, prostatitis, anthrax and cystitis. Other diseases treated with the help of this drug are various forms of infectious diarrhea, typhoid fever, acute sinusitis and lower respiratory infections. The treatment of urethral gonorrhea is restricted to certain parts of the world, due to local bacterial resistance (Ciprofloxacin doesn't work for curing gonorrhea in areas such as North America, Eastern Asia and Scotland).
Ciprofloxacin is not used in treating community-acquired pneumonia due to bacterial resistance from Streptococcus pneumoniae. The full list of uses for the drug varies according to certain regulatory agencies across the globe.
The drug can interact with other drugs and herbal supplements, as other antibiotics, such as amoxicillin, cephalexim or doxycycline. Administration of Ciprofloxacin together with mineral supplements such as magnesium, sucralfate, iron, zinc, calcium or aluminum will reduce the drug's rate of absorption.
Overdosing Ciprofloxacin can result in renal toxicity. Overdose treatment involves induced vomiting and gastric lavage. In severe cases, hemodialysis can be used, but this technique only removes about 10% of the antibiotic from the body.
Generally, the side effects are similar to those of other antibiotics available on the market. The reactions are usually mild to moderate, while special or serious side effects occur rarely. In a study comprising a total of 49,038 patients, a small number of patients exhibited adverse effects. These were usually mild and light in terms of severity and most of them didn't require special care. The drug was discontinued only to less than 1% of patients because of side effects. Some of the symptoms exhibited by patients, following Ciprofloxacin usage are nausea, vomiting, rash and diarrhea. Special care must be given to spontaneous tendon ruptures or muscle fatigue and weakness, which can be common side effects.
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